You are here

Methodological Reports

The Methodological Report series aims to examine various issues relevant for survey data quality to enhance the understanding and analysis of PMA2020 survey data for researchers, policy makers, and survey specialists. 

Below is a list of the in-depth methodological papers from PMA2020.

Methodological reports:

PMA2020 Methodological Report No. 5. Levels, Trends, and Patterns of Contraceptive Method Availability: Comparative Analysis in 8 Sub-Saharan African Countries > Service delivery point (SDP) surveys are essential to monitor the extent to which contraceptives are accessible to populations. PMA2020, population-SDP linked monitoring surveys, provides a unique opportunity to understand levels and trends in method availability. The percentage of facilities offering IUDs and implants ranged widely across geographies, while short-acting method availability was high overall. Within geographies, availability of individual methods remained fairly stable over time except for implants, which increased universally. Service readiness figures indicate that access to LARCs may be lower than what commodity availability statistics suggest. This research demonstrates that SDP survey data can and should be used to monitor levels and trends of method and service availability and to inform program management.


PMA2020 Methodological Report No. 4: Method Awareness Questions and Women’s Report for Modern Method Use in Surveys > Accurate estimates of contraceptive use are critical for monitoring and evaluating family planning programs. Data typically come from various population-based surveys that employ their own questionnaires, thereby limiting wide-scale comparability. Few studies have addressed whether including specific questions, such as contraceptive method awareness questions, has an impact on responses about method use. This study aims to assess whether including contraceptive method awareness questions influences reported current method use differently across sociodemographic characteristics of respondents, based on secondary data analyses of PMA2020 surveys from five countries.

PMA2020 Methodological Report No. 3: Women’s Reporting of Current Use of Contraceptive Methods in a Population with High Sterilization Rates: Lessons Learned from PMA2020 Rajasthan 2016 >  PMA2020 carried out a verification exercise to address the issue of under-reporting of women’s current contraceptive use in the first round of the survey conducted in Rajasthan, India. The exercise was aimed at assessing and assuring data quality from the first-round survey to help identify measures to prevent and minimize under-reporting in the future survey rounds. This report presents the process of verification carried out in Rajasthan and a modification made in the questionnaire in the second round of data collection to address concerns raised in the verification exercise.

PMA2020 Methodological Report No. 2: Fertility Data in Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 Surveys > The purpose of this report is to provide a guide to better understand and use fertility data in PMA2020 surveys and document lessons learned during the first four years of the project. The specific aims are: to document PMA2020’s methodology to measure total fertility rate (TFR); to assess the quality of fertility data in PMA2020 surveys; and, to estimate the TFR adjusted for identified issues. Findings suggest that use of the simple questionnaire introduced only under-counting of multiple births, which can be and have been adjusted in data analysis.

PMA2020 Methodological Report No. 1: Response Patterns on Behavioral Outcomes in Relation to Use of Resident Enumerators Over Multiple Survey Rounds > This report is the first in a series of Methodological Reports that aims to explain and contextualize PMA2020 methodologies. It focuses on the unique socio-demographic profile of PMA2020 REs (from Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda) and examines potential differential reporting trends introduced by acquaintance between the REs and the survey respondents. 

Examining Discrepancy in Contraceptive Use Between Two Household Health Surveys in Ethiopia: EMDHS vs. EPMA > An analysis that compares key family planning indicators between the Ethiopian MiniDHS and PMA2020/Ethiopia surveys. The report was written by an independent consultant, Dr. Yared Mekonnen.