SNAPSHOT OF INDICATORS
Summary of the sample design for PMA2016/Rajasthan-R1:
PMA2016/Rajasthan is the first round of PMA2020 data collection in Rajasthan state, India. The survey used a two-stage cluster design within the state and urban/rural strata. Primary sampling units were selected using probability proportional to size procedures within the state. The sample was powered to generate state-level estimates of all women mCPR with less than a 2% margin of error and a less than 3% margin of error for urban/rural estimates. To read more details on our survey methodology including the survey tools, training, data processing and response rates, please scroll to the end of the table below.
|All Women||Married Women|
|Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR)||41.8||54.8|
|Modern Contraceptive Prevalence (mCPR)||39.5||51.7|
|Traditional Contraceptive Prevalence||2.9||3.8|
|Contraceptive Method Mix|
|Contraceptive method mix (stacked bar charts for all/married women)|
|Unmet need for family planning||11.3||14.4|
|Demand for family planning||53.0||69.0|
|Percent of women with demand satisfied by modern contraception||73.3||73.6|
|Percent of recent births, by intention|
|Wanted no more||5.1||4.9|
|Access, Equity, Quality and Choice:|
|Percent of users who chose their current method by themselves or jointly with a partner/provider||77.7||78.1|
|Percent of users who paid for family planning services||19.9||20.1|
|Method Information Index Components|
|Percent of current users who were informed about other methods||45.3||45.5|
|Percent of current users who were informed about side effects||58.3||58.0|
|Percent of current users who were told what to do if they experienced side effects||83.5||83.5|
|Percent of current users who would return and/or refer others to their provider||46.8||46.5|
|Percent of women receiving family planning information in the past 12 months||32.3||37.2|
The PMA2016/Rajasthan-R1 Survey in Detail
Round 1 Sample Design
For this first round of PMA2020 data collection in Rajasthan, India (PMA2016/Rajasthan), the project used a two-stage cluster design within the state and urban/rural strata and drew a sample of 147 enumeration areas (EAs) by the International Institute for Population Sciences from a master sampling frame to achieve a representative sample of Rajasthan state. The master frame of EAs was based on a master sampling frame from the International Institute for Population Sciences.
In each selected EA cluster, households and private health facilities were listed and mapped. Field supervisors randomly selected 35 households from the household listing using a random number generation phone application. A household roster was completed and all eligible women age 15-49 in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent to participate in the study. For the SDP survey, up to three private SDPs, including pharmacies, within each sampled EA cluster boundary were randomly selected from the listing. In addition, three public health SDPs—a health post, a health center, and a district hospital designated to serve the EA population—were selected.
All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. The questionnaires were in English and could be switched into local languages (Hindi) on the phone. The questionnaires were translated using available translations from similar population surveys and experts in translation. The interviews were conducted in the local language, or English in a few cases when the respondent was not comfortable with the local language. Female resident enumerators in each enumeration area (EA) administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households.
The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of livestock and durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor and roof materials, water sources, and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth quintile index.
The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of water, sanitation facilities used and prevalence of open defecation by household members.
The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on: education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; exposure to family planning messaging in the media; and the burden of collecting water on women.
The SDP questionnaire collected information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the health facility.
Training, Data Collection and Processing
Throughout the training, resident enumerators (REs) and supervisors were evaluated based on their performance on phone-based assessments. The RE training was conducted primarily in Hindi, whereas some small group review sessions were conducted in other local languages.
Supervisors received additional training prior to and after the RE training to further strengthen their supervision skills, including instruction on conducting re-interviews, carrying out random spot checks, and dealing with the local/community leaders and engaging the communities.
Data Collection and Processing
The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, central staff at IIHMR in Jaipur, Rajasthan and the data manager at the Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server. The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in September.
Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights, and prepared the final dataset for analysis using Stata. The findings were shared at the state and national levels with government and community stakeholders at two dissemination events in December 2016.
In the occupied households that provided an interview, a total of 5,506 eligible women age 15 to 49 years were identified. Overall, 96.4% of the eligible women were available and consented to the interview. The female response rate was slightly higher in the rural (96.8%) relative to the urban (95.2%) enumeration areas (EAs). Only de facto females are included in the analyses; the final completed de facto female sample size was 5,306.
|Household response rate* (%)||96.1||97.8||97.4|
|Interviews with women age 15 to 49|
|Number of eligible women**||1,463||4,043||5,506|
|Number of eligible women interviewed||1,393||3,913||5,306|
|Eligible women response rate† (%)||95.2||96.8||96.4|
**Eligible women response rates include only women identified in completed household interviews
†Eligible women response rate = eligible women interviewed/eligible women
Sample Error Estimates
|Variable||Value[R]||Standard Error||Confidence Interval|
|All women age 15-49|
|Currently using a modern method||0.397||0.017||0.363||0.431|
|Currently using a traditional method||0.029||0.006||0.017||0.040|
|Currently using any contraceptive method||0.420||0.017||0.386||0.453|
|Currently using injectables||0.011||0.004||0.004||0.019|
|Currently using male condoms||0.095||0.010||0.076||0.114|
|Currently using implants||0.003||0.002||-0.002||0.008|
|Chose method by self or jointly in past 12 months||0.774||0.037||0.702||0.847|
|Paid fees for family planning services in past 12 months||0.186||0.017||0.151||0.220|
|Informed by provider about other methods||0.465||0.033||0.400||0.530|
|Informed by provider about side effects||0.582||0.040||0.503||0.660|
|Satisfied with provider: Would return and refer friend/relative to provider||0.472||0.041||0.391||0.552|
|Visited by health worker who talked about family planning in past 12 months||0.323||0.028||0.268||0.379|
|Women in union age 15-49|
|Currently using a modern method||0.518||0.021||0.476||0.560|
|Currently using a traditional method||0.038||0.008||0.023||0.053|
|Currently using any contraceptive modern method||0.550||0.021||0.509||0.591|
|Currently using injectables||0.015||0.005||0.005||0.024|
|Currently using male condoms||0.123||0.011||0.101||0.146|
|Currently using implants||0.004||0.003||-0.002||0.010|
|Chose method by self or jointly in past 12 months||0.778||0.035||0.709||0.847|
|Paid fees for family planning services in past 12 months||0.187||0.018||0.152||0.222|
|Informed by provider about other methods||0.467||0.033||0.403||0.532|
|Informed by provider about side effects||0.579||0.039||0.502||0.657|
|Satisfied with provider: Would return and refer friend/relative to provider||0.469||0.040||0.390||0.549|
|Visited by health worker who talked about family planning in past 12 months||0.372||0.031||0.311||0.432|
Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR) University in Jaipur and The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 1, PMA2016/India-R1 (Rajasthan) Snapshot of Indicators. 2016. India and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.